A resource for reliable information about significant people, places, events and things in Minnesota history.

Photographs of Macbeth taken c.1915-1920 (at left) and in 1917 (at right).

The Minnesota nightingale

Universal Laboratories Building, 2009.

Where crop fungus was big business

National Afro-American Council meeting, St. Paul, 1902. Booker T. Washington stands in the front row, hat in hand; McGhee stands two rows behind him. To Washington's left, Bishop Alexander Walters, then Ida B. Well-Barnett. Over Walter's right shoulder, T. Thomas Fortune; over his left. W.E.B. DuBois. Emmett Scott is behind Wells-Barnett.

Civil rights and controversy at the State Capitol

Child's birthday party in Virginia

Practicing the Jewish faith in Hibbing, Eveleth, Virginia, Chisholm, and beyond

Photograph of the front exterior of the Minnesota State Reform School. Taken by T.W. Ingersoll, c.1875.

An experiment in juvenile justice

Headline and accompanying photograph printed in the November 6, 1924 edition (page 10) of the St. Paul Daily News.

Minnesota's worst documented encounter with the virus

Photograph of Crispus Attucks staff and residents moving to 1537 Randolph Avenue in Highland Park, 1908.

A refuge for African American orphans and elders

A cyanotype photograph taken from the site of the town of Nininger c.1890.

The rapid rise and fall of a Dakota County community

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Mankato-born Florence Macbeth won international acclaim as an operatic soprano during the 1910s and 1920s. Known as "the Minnesota nightingale," Macbeth made hundreds of concert and recital appearances during her career. She toured the U.S. with the Chicago Opera Company for fourteen years before retiring from singing in the 1930s.

The Universal Laboratories building played a key role during World War II by ensuring that the United States had an adequate domestic supply of the essential crude drug ergot. As war threatened to cut off imported supplies of crude ergot, Universal Laboratories developed an effective collecting and processing operation in Dassel.

When St. Paul's High Bridge opened in 1889, only one bridge in the United States surpassed it in height and length. Built of wrought iron and designed for wagons, the High Bridge served mainly cars and trucks. It was demolished in 1985 after ninety-six years of service.

In July 1902 St. Paul hosted the most important African-American political event of the year: the annual meeting of the National Afro-American Council (NAAC). St. Paul lawyer Fredrick McGhee organized it and hoped that it would produce a more united and effective national civil rights organization. The opposite occurred.

The Deerwood Auditorium is a prime example of a modern municipal facility made possible by the relief programs of the New Deal. It provided local residents with an auditorium and gymnasium space, council chambers, a library, and a fire hall. The building expanded the range of services available to the residents of Deerwood and enhanced their quality of life.

Built in 1867, the Chubb House is the oldest residence standing in Fairmont, and the only of the town's houses known to have been built with brick from Fairmont's first brickyard. It was the home of prominent homesteader Orville Chubb, who was the community's first physician. The house is an example of a property associated with the early Yankee American development of southern Minnesota town sites.

In the early morning of June 2, 1895, Houston Osborne, a young African American man, broke into Frieda Kachel's bedroom in her St. Paul home. When Kachel screamed, Osborne ran; he was caught and hanged from a cottonwood tree but let down before he died. He died in prison eighteen months later.

A marked rise in public anti-Semitism in the 1930s spurred a group of Jewish leaders in the Twin Cities and Duluth to form the Anti-Defamation Council of Minnesota in 1938. In the 1950s the focus of the council shifted from defensive actions to teaching campaigns. These efforts aimed to fight ignorance and improve social relations. The renamed Jewish Community Relations Council of Minnesota and the Dakotas continues this mission in the twenty-first century.