Nineteenth-century Jewish immigrants brought to Minnesota long-standing religious traditions of aiding the poor and needy. Beginning in the 1870s, German-Jewish immigrants, followed by Jews from Eastern Europe, founded an array of charitable and philanthropic groups. Women were the prime movers, though men held directors’ roles. When local governments began providing relief payments in the 1930s, the Jewish aid groups focused on social services. By the end of World War II, Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Duluth each maintained a community-wide social service agency and community federation. This model persisted into the twenty-first century.