On August 21, 1860, African American Eliza Winston was freed from her Mississippi slaveholder in a Minneapolis court. After being granted legal freedom, however, Winston was met with white mob violence and had to leave the area, perhaps fleeing to Canada. The event showed that although slavery was illegal in Minnesota, many white Minnesotans supported the practice when it economically benefited them.
Eliza Winston was thirty years old in 1860, and she had been close to freedom once before. Her husband, Jim Winston, was a free man of color who planned to buy Winston's freedom from her slaveholder at the time. But Jim died during a trip to Liberia, and she was pawned or sold to Mississippian Richard Christmas.
In the summer of 1860, Eliza Winston traveled to St. Anthony when Christmas, his wife, Mary, and their young daughter went on vacation. Christmas brought Winston along so she could care for the daughter and for Mary, who was ill. Like many vacationing Southern slaveholders, they roomed at the Winslow House.
Although slavery was legal in Southern states, Minnesota banned the practice in its first state constitution of 1857. That might not have been enough to grant Winston her freedom, however. Under the U.S. Supreme Court's 1857 Dred Scott v. Sandford ruling a few months earlier, a slave could not become free simply because he or she lived in a state that banned slavery. Fortunately for Winston, Northern judges usually ignored the Dred Scott decision. If the circumstances were right, Winston had a chance of being freed.
While Winston was in St. Anthony, she met Emily and Ralph Grey, a free African American couple. The Greys were respected community members and abolitionists with ties to powerful local figures. They introduced Winston to notable local anti-slavery leaders, including W.D. Babbitt, Ariel S. Bigelow, and William S. King, later founder of Northrup, King and Company.
On August 21, Emily Grey, Babbitt, and Grey's white friend Mrs. Gates filed a legal complaint asserting that Winston was being "restrained of her liberty by her master." By this time, the Christmases and Winston had moved from the Winslow House to a cottage on Lake Harriet, in Minneapolis. The Hennepin County sheriff was sent there. A rowdy crowd of abolitionists accompanied the sheriff.
When the sheriff arrived, Mary Christmas ordered Winston to flee. Winston stayed put, however, telling the sheriff she wished to be legally granted her freedom. The sheriff decided to escort her and Richard Christmas directly to the courthouse, where a judge could rule on the matter.
The scene outside the courthouse was a volatile one. The Hennepin County Courthouse was just across the river from St. Anthony, within view of the Winslow House, so many people in the area had an economic interest in slavery. If the court freed Winston, future slaveholders would be less likely to visit the area. With that in mind, local businessmen sent laborers and ruffians to the courthouse to create a ruckus.
In court, Winston testified that she wanted to be free so she could move to Memphis, work as a nurse, and remarry. The judge, Charles E. Vanderburgh, was an abolitionist. He ruled in Winston's favor. Christmas accepted the decision without complaint. He knew that despite the presence of pro-slavery mobs outside the courthouse, it was the abolitionists in the area who held political power.
The courtroom scene became chaotic, and a crowd outside protested Vanderburgh's decision. Winston's life was in danger, so Babbitt helped her escape to his home. That evening, a threatening gang of pro-slavery agitators surrounded the house. By then, however, Winston had disappeared.
The Winston case revealed several contradictions in Minnesota's racial politics. On the one hand, the state constitution forbade slavery, and cities such as Minneapolis and St. Anthony were centers of the Midwest's abolition movement. On the other hand, many white Minnesota businessmen benefited from trade with Southern slaveholders, and white Minnesotans could be quick to form racial mobs.
As local business owners had feared, the Winston case did slow Southern tourism to Minnesota. This was only a problem for several months, however. Southern states began leaving the Union in December 1860, following the election of Abraham Lincoln, and the Civil War erupted the following April.
Green, William D. "Eliza Winston and the Politics of Freedom in Minnesota, 1854–1860." Minnesota History 57, no. 3 (Fall 2000): 106–122. http://collections.mnhs.org/MNHistoryMagazine/articles/57/v57i03p106-122.pdf
———. "The Summer Christmas Came to Minnesota: The Case of Eliza Winston, a Slave." Law and Inequality: A Journal of Theory and Practice 8, no. 1 (November 1989): 151–177.
Grey, Emily O. Goodridge. "A Black Community in Memoir." Ed. Patricia C. Harpole. Minnesota History 49, no. 2 (Summer 1984): 42–53. http://collections.mnhs.org/MNHistoryMagazine/articles/49/v49i02p042-053.pdf
Klement, Frank. "The Abolition Movement in Minnesota." Minnesota History 32, no.1 (March 1951): 15–33. http://collections.mnhs.org/MNHistoryMagazine/articles/32/v32i01p015-033.pdf
Turner, Lois. "An Analysis of the Negro Slavery Issue in Minnesota, 1819–1861." M.Ed. thesis, Macalester College, 1965.
On August 21, 1860, Eliza Winston, an African American woman brought to Minneapolis with the family of her Mississippi slaveholder, Richard Christmas, is declared free by Judge Charles E. Vanderburgh.
Construction begins on the Winslow House, a five-story hotel near the Falls of St. Anthony that soon becomes popular among vacationing Southerners.
The U.S. Supreme Court, in Dred Scott v. Sandford, declares that slaves are not citizens and thus have no right to sue in federal courts.
Minnesota's constitution is completed and outlaws slavery in the state.
Eliza Winston is ruled free by Judge Charles E. Vanderburgh, August 21.
The Civil War begins with the attack on Fort Sumter, South Carolina, on April 12.