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Black and white photograph of M. A. Company workers constructing vinegar barrels, c.1912.

Interior, M. A. Gedney Company

M. A. Company workers constructing vinegar barrels, c.1912.

photograph of the altar and main aisle of St. Peter Claver

Interior, St. Peter Claver, St. Paul

Interior, St. Peter Claver Church, St. Paul, c.1916.

Black and white photograph of downtown St. Paul at the intersection of Eighth and Robert Streets, c.1932.

Intersection at Eighth and Robert looking down Eighth, St. Paul

Downtown St. Paul at the intersection of Eighth and Robert Streets, c.1932.

Black and white photograph of the intersection of Chicago Avenue and Lake Street, Minneapolis, 1956.

Intersection of Chicago Avenue and Lake Street, Minneapolis

This image shows the intersection of Lake Street and Chicago at the beginning of 1956. Note the Rialto Theater—which would later become a magnet for anti-pornography protesters—on the left. A photojournalist took this image soon after the city had rebuilt the street to better accommodate automobiles. Lake Street was repaved, widened, and illuminated with state-of-the art florescent fixtures in an effort to make it into what was known at the time as a "Great White Way." These efforts helped to make the street into the center for automobile culture in the region. Dotted by gas stations and drive-ins, the street boasted seventy-four automobile dealers. It also became a magnet for drag racers. These changes to the street's built environment made it inhospitable to pedestrians and weakened the social economy of the street. Businesses left the street en masse in the early 1960s, setting the stage for the Alexander brothers, who were able to profit from these plummeting property values. This photograph was taken on January 9, 1956, by the Minneapolis Star Journal.

Interstate 94 construction at Dale Street and St. Anthony

Interstate 94 construction at Dale Street and St. Anthony

Interstate 94 construction at Dale Street and St. Anthony, c.1966. Construction of I-94 in St. Paul displaced African American residents.

Map of interstate boundaries in Lake Superior ultimately fixed in 1947.

Interstate boundaries in Lake Superior

Map of interstate boundaries in Lake Superior ultimately fixed in 1947.

Streetcar station, Wildwood Amusement Park, c.1915.

Interurban streetcar station (White Bear Lake), Wildwood

Streetcar station, Wildwood Amusement Park, c.1915.

Map of the boundaries of Iowa approved by Congress in 1845 but rejected by Iowa voters.

Iowa boundaries approved by Congress, 1845

Map of the boundaries of Iowa approved by Congress in 1845 but rejected by Iowa voters.

Irene Paull as a child with her siblings

Irene Paull as a child with her siblings

Irene Levine Paull (right) as a child with her siblings Sam and Etta, c.1915.

Irene Paull Testifying Before HUAC

Irene Paull Testifying Before HUAC

Irene Levine Paull testifying before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), July 2, 1963.

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