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Gág, Wanda (1893–1946)

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Photograph of Wanda Gág in 1928.

Photograph of Wanda Gág in 1928.

Wanda Gág (rhymes with "cog") was determined to be an artist, and ultimately she triumphed. Her talent steered her through family hardship and hesitant early artistic efforts until she created Millions of Cats, her beloved 1928 children's book. It has never been out of print.

Gág and her family were Bohemian in both senses of the word. Her father was from the region called Bohemia that is now part of the Czech Republic. Both of her parents were also bohemian in spirit, being artists and freethinkers. In the late nineteenth century they married in New Ulm, where Wanda was born in 1893.

Anton Gág was a painter, photographer, musician, and mentor. He and his wife Elisabeth (Lissi) encouraged all of their children to read, to draw, and to make music. The family was close, and Wanda grew up believing that every child had an innate ability to draw. Anton struggled to find work, painting church interiors, taking photographic portraits, and even trying to start an art school.

Wanda had to grow up fast. In 1908, when she was fifteen, Anton died of tuberculosis. His dying words were reported as, "What Papa was unable to accomplish, Wanda will have to finish." Years of hunger and deprivation followed, but all of the Gág children went to high school.

Wanda Gág's ambitions were always strong, and she won drawing competitions as a teenager. In 1913, she won a scholarship to the St. Paul School of Art. From 1914 to 1917 she attended the Minneapolis School of Art (later Minneapolis College of Art and Design), also on scholarship. In addition, she won prizes given by her fellow students, drew portraits for income, and gained local patrons. One was Herschel V. Jones, publisher of the Minneapolis Journal, who paid for her supplies and schooling.

In 1917, Gág won a full scholarship to the renowned Art Students League in New York. In the same year, her mother died, and the Gág siblings arranged to stick together. Eventually, some of them lived with her in New York, and she began to sell both fine-art prints and illustrations for books and ads. She was a friend to many famous artists of the time, including lithographer Adolf Dehn, a fellow Minnesotan.

Gág was successful with commercial assignments, but she preferred more independent work. In 1928, after two successful gallery shows of her prints and drawings, a children's book editor invited her to write and illustrate a book for "juvenile readers." Gág swiftly produced the manuscript for Millions of Cats, and once it was published her ambitions for independence were realized.

Millions of Cats is considered a prototype of the modern children's book. It uses poetic wordplay and vivid, horizontal imagery to engage readers of all ages. In the story, an old man can't choose just one cat for his wife, so the landscape swarms with felines.

The imagery in each of Gág's ten books evokes Old World folk art, yet her plot twists are odd and modern. In Gone is Gone, a man insists on doing housework because he thinks his wife has it too easy. In Nothing at All, an invisible dog follows its two siblings to a new home, gradually acquiring physical form due to the advice of a magical bird.

Gág was a pioneer in many arenas beyond the "new" children's book. She created award-winning prints of common objects, adding slight distortions that made them seem alive. She experimented with painting on sandpaper. She was also feminist in her beliefs about women's relations to men, and about their rights to independent careers.

Apart from her picture books and fine-art prints, another of Wanda Gág's legacies was her five-hundred-page autobiography, Growing Pains. This 1940 book, based on her detailed diaries, covers just her life through art school, and is alternately impulsive and honest. "I will have to be clever! It nearly breaks my heart," she writes in one entry.

In 1931, Gág bought a small farm in New Jersey that she named "All Creation." There, she hosted friends and family, worked, and enjoyed life with her husband, Earle Humphreys. After being diagnosed with lung cancer in 1945, she took a winter trip to Florida before her beloved spring returned again. She died in New York City on June 27, 1946.

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"No Cigarets, No Cider at Artists' Gathering." Minneapolis Tribune, August 19, 1917.

"Wanda Gág Dies in N.Y." Minneapolis Times, June 28, 1946.

Cox, Richard W. "Wanda Gág: The Bite of the Picture-Book." Minnesota History 44, no. 7 (Fall 1975): 238–254.
http://collections.mnhs.org/MNHistoryMagazine/articles/44/v44i07p238-254.pdf

Cox, Richard W., and Julie L'Enfant. "Old World Symphony: Thoughts of Minnesota in the Late Work of Wanda Gág." Minnesota History 55, no. 1 (Spring 1996): 2–15.
http://collections.mnhs.org/MNHistoryMagazine/articles/55/v55i01p002-015.pdf

Gág, Wanda. Growing Pains: Diaries and Drawings for the Years 1908–1917. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1984.

Hoyle, Karen Nelson. Wanda Gág: A Life of Art and Stories. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2009.

L'Enfant, Julie. The Gág Family: German-Bohemian Artists in America. Afton, MN: Afton Historical Society Press, 2002.

Alma [Schmidt] Scott. "Wanda Gág." Horn Book 23, no. 3 (May-June 1947): 158–169.

Related Images

Photograph of Wanda Gág in 1928.
Photograph of Wanda Gág in 1928.
Photograph of the Gág family home at 200 South German Street in New Ulm. Taken by Anton Gág c.1890.
Photograph of the Gág family home at 200 South German Street in New Ulm. Taken by Anton Gág c.1890.
Photograph of Wanda Gág at the age of about three, c.1896.
Photograph of Wanda Gág at the age of about three, c.1896.
Photograph of the children of Anton and Elizabeth Gág c.1905. Back row (left to right): Stella, Debli, Wanda. Front row (left to right): Howard, Asta, Nelda.
Photograph of the children of Anton and Elizabeth Gág c.1905. Back row (left to right): Stella, Debli, Wanda. Front row (left to right): Howard, Asta, Nelda.
Photograph of Wanda Gág with a poster she submitted in a contest, 1914.
Photograph of Wanda Gág with a poster she submitted in a contest, 1914.
Photograph of Wanda Gág in 1930.
Photograph of Wanda Gág in 1930.
Photograph of Wanda Gág in 1944.
Photograph of Wanda Gág in 1944.

Turning Point

In 1928, Coward-McCann publishers ask Gág to write a children's book. The result is Millions of Cats, which has never been out of print.

Chronology

1893

Wanda Hazel Gág is born in New Ulm, the first of seven children.

1908

Anton Gág dies of tuberculosis. Wanda begins keeping a diary.

1909

Wanda's ten-part illustrated story "Robby Bobby in Mother Gooseland" is published in the Junior Journal section of the Minneapolis Journal. She receives fifty dollars for her work.

1913

At age twenty, Gág begins studying at the St. Paul School of Art on a scholarship.

1914

In December, Gág transfers to the Minneapolis School of Art, focusing on illustration training. She enjoys a rich social life.

1917

Elizabeth "Lissi" Gág dies, leaving seven children. The youngest, Flavia, is nine years old. The four youngest children vow to stay together in Minneapolis.

1923

Wanda's first one-person show opens at the Ninety-Sixth Street branch of the New York Public Library. The show gets good reviews and some of the works are later reprinted. Wanda moves to rural Connecticut for a year.

1927

Gág publishes her essay-memoir "A Hotbed of Feminists" in the June 22 issue of The Nation. She uses pseudonyms but the details mirror her actual experience.

1928

Coward-McCann publishes Millions of Cats. The royalties from this and later books provide Gág with an income throughout the Depression. She is interviewed widely and often travels to promote her books.

1931

Gág buys a farm near Milford, New Jersey, where she builds a studio called "All Creation." It becomes her main residence.

1937

Pioneering children's librarian Anne Carroll Moore convinces Gág and Coward-McCann to produce a new illustrated translation of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, partly as a contrast to the new Walt Disney animated feature film.

1940

Gág publishes Growing Pains, a collection of excerpts from her diaries written between the ages of fifteen and twenty-three. The book also includes both her childhood and adult drawings.

1943

After many years together, Gág and Earle Humphreys get married.

1945

Exploratory surgery reveals cancer in Gág's lung. She and Humphreys spend the winter holidays in Florida.

1946

Wanda Gág dies on June 27 at Doctor's Hospital in New York City.