Tatankamani (Walking Buffalo) was a leader of the Mdewakanton Dakota in the upper Mississippi Valley. White settlers who met him as they advanced into the region in the early nineteenth century came to know him and his village as Red Wing.
Tatankamani was born in the some time in the mid-1700s. It is likely his Mantanton family (a sub-group of the Mdewakanton) lived near the mouth of the Minnesota River. His father, also known as Red Wing, was leader of their group of Mdewakanton, and he followed in his footsteps.
As a young Dakota man, Tatankamani displayed great skill in hunting and warfare. Followers believed he possessed supernatural power, the ability to foretell the future through dreams. That advantage led him to many victories over tribal enemies. By the end of the eighteenth century, Tatankamani had expanded his leadership beyond the Mantanton to a larger group of Mdewakanton, earning a regional reputation in the process. He was known by French traders in the region due to his prominence.
In August 1805, twenty-six-year-old Lieutenant Zebulon Pike led the first United States expedition through the upper Mississippi region. Pike met with seven Mdewakanton leaders. In a treaty they signed on September 23, the Dakota granted land in what became the future Minnesota to the United States for first time. According to Pike's account, le Boeuf qui Marche, (the French name for Tatankamani) was present.
War broke out between the United States and Great Britain in 1812. This created a problem for Walking Buffalo, commonly called "Red Wing" by U.S. representatives. The great Mdewakanton fighter and his followers had earlier been British allies. To sort out matters, Red Wing sent his eldest son to join other Dakota leaders in the City of Washington (Washington D.C.), where they conferred with the U.S. Secretary of War. Red Wing, meanwhile, joined other leaders and met with Great Britain's representative. The Mdewakanton agreed to fight for the British.
Red Wing is believed to have led a unit of Dakota soldiers to Mackinac Island in Michigan, helping to gain a bloodless victory over the Americans there. However, upon returning home, he listened to his son's stories of the United States' power. By February 1814, the Red Wing Mdewakanton had decided to offer support to the Americans. A letter from British trader Robert Dickson confirms the defection. At war's end, the victorious United States invited Red Wing to a meeting in St. Louis. On July 19, 1815, he agreed to a treaty as "Tatangamanee, Walking Buffalo," spokesman for the "Sioux (Dakota) of the Lakes."
During the war, Red Wing had moved his village south, to the foot of Barn Bluff in present-day downtown Red Wing. The 300-feet-high riverside promontory was a well-known landmark. Growing numbers of whites traveling up the Mississippi stopped at the village, meeting and talking with the aging Mdewakanton leader. In 1825 Red Wing took part in important discussions with Anishinaabe (Ojibwe) and United States leaders downriver at Prairie du Chien.
Red Wing died on March 4, 1829, and was succeeded by Wacouta (Wakute, Shooter), his nephew or stepson.
Anderson, Gary Clayton. Kinsmen of Another Kind: Dakota-White Relations in the Upper Mississippi River Valley, 1650-1862. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press.
Anderson, Thomas. "Captain T.G. Anderson's Journal." Wisconsin Historical Collections 9 (1882): 174-185.
Robert Dickson Papers, 1790-1831
Manuscript Collection. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul
Description: The British trader's correspondence concerning activities in the upper Mississippi Valley, early nineteenth century.
Diedrich, Mark. Famous Chiefs of the Eastern Sioux. Minneapolis: Coyote Books, 1987.
---. "Red Wing, War Chief of the Mdewakanton Dakota." Minnesota Archaeologist 40 (March 1981): 19-32.
Folwell, William Watts. A History of Minnesota, vol. 1. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1956 edition.
Thomas Forsyth Letters, 1819
Manuscript Collection, Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul
Description: Three letters from Forsyth, U.S. Indian Agent in St. Louis, regarding delivery of goods to Dakota Indians living on the Upper Mississippi, including the Red Wing village.
Hancock, Joseph Woods. Goodhue County Minnesota, Past and Present. Red Wing, MN: Red Wing Printing, 1893.
History of Goodhue County. Red Wing: Wood, Alley, 1878.
Meyer, Roy W. "Who Was Red Wing?" Unpublished manuscript, Goodhue County Historical Society collection, 1964.
Upham, Warren. Minnesota in Three Centuries, 1655-1908, vol. 1. Mankato, MN: Publishing Society of Minnesota, 1908.
Woolworth, Alan R. "19th Century Minnesota Biographies, A to Z," Red Wing Dynasty, 1823-1925.
Found in Alan R. Woolworth Papers. Minnesota Historical Society, St Paul
Although originally allied with the British, by 1814 Tatankamani (Walking Buffalo), pledged his support and that of the Mdewakanton under his leadership to the United States, which had significant impact in the Upper Mississippi region.