Evolution of Dakota Beadwork

Dakota people in what is now Minnesota began using glass beads to decorate clothing, bags, and household items in the mid-nineteenth century. The practice both reinforced and transformed Dakota art, allowing Native artists to preserve a creative tradition that continues in the twenty-first century.

Black and white photograph of African American troops and officers of the Twenty-fifth Infantry standing by the Round Tower, c.1887.

African American enlisted men and white officers of the Twenty-fifth Infantry standing by the Round Tower

African American enlisted men and white officers of the Twenty-fifth Infantry standing by the Round Tower, c.1887.

Black and white photograph of National Guardsmen patrolling Plymouth Avenue in North Minneapolis, July 1967.

Civilians and National Guardsmen on Plymouth Avenue

Civilians and National Guardsmen on Plymouth Avenue in North Minneapolis, July 1967.

Civil Unrest on Plymouth Avenue, Minneapolis, 1967

On the night of July 19, 1967, racial tension in North Minneapolis erupted along Plymouth Avenue in a series of acts of arson, assaults, and vandalism. The violence, which lasted for three nights, is often linked with other race-related demonstrations in cities across the nation during 1967’s “long hot summer.”

Black and white photograph of St. Mark’s African Methodist Episcopal Church, Duluth. Photographed in 1975.

St. Mark’s African Methodist Episcopal Church, Duluth (exterior)

St. Mark’s African Methodist Episcopal Church, Duluth. Photographed in 1975.

Black and white photograph of St. Mark’s African Methodist Episcopal Church interior, Duluth. Photographed in 1975.

St. Mark’s African Methodist Episcopal Church, Duluth (interior)

St. Mark’s African Methodist Episcopal Church interior, Duluth. Photographed in 1975.

Black and white photograph of Rev. Alphonse Reff standing in the pulpit at St. Mark’s African Methodist Episcopal Church, Duluth, July 8, 1975.

Rev. Alphonse Reff at the pulpit of St. Mark’s AME

Rev. Alphonse Reff standing in the pulpit at St. Mark’s African Methodist Episcopal Church, Duluth, July 8, 1975.

Black and white photograph of Rev. William M. Majors, c.1920. Majors was pastor of St. Mark’s AME at the time of the 1920 Duluth lynchings.

Rev. William M. Majors

Rev. William M. Majors, c.1920. Majors was pastor of St. Mark’s AME at the time of the 1920 Duluth lynchings.

Color image of St. Mark’s African Methodist Episcopal Church, Duluth, 2001.

St. Mark’s African Methodist Episcopal Church, Duluth

St. Mark’s African Methodist Episcopal Church, Duluth, 2001.

St. Mark’s AME Church

St. Mark’s African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church has played a central role in Duluth’s African American community for over 125 years. While other black organizations have dissolved or moved to the Twin Cities, St. Mark’s has been a mainstay.

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