Black and white photograph of Nellie Francis, ca. 1921.

Nellie Francis

Nellie Francis, ca. 1921. Francis was a founding member of the NAACP, a Women's Suffrage activist, and champion of Minnesota's anti-lynching bill. Photograph is from the St. Paul Appeal May 7, 1921.

Black and white photograph of Amanda Lyles, ca. 1913.

Amanda Lyles

Amanda Lyles, ca. 1913. Lyles sat on the Executive Committee of the St. Paul chapter of the NAACP in 1914. Photograh by Kregel Photo Parlors.

Black and white photograph Jose Sherwood, ca. 1918.

Jose Sherwood

Jose Sherwood, ca. 1918. Sherwood was a leading figure in St. Paul's African American community. He helped found the St. Paul chapter of the NAACP.

Origins of the NAACP in Minnesota, 1912–1920

In the years leading up to and immediately following World War I, African Americans in St. Paul, Minneapolis, and Duluth established separate chapters of the recently formed National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

Black and white photograph of African American Civilian Conservation Corps fire fighters, northern Minnesota, ca. 1933. Photographed by the St. Paul Dispatch.

African American Civilian Conservation Corps fire fighters

African American Civilian Conservation Corps fire fighters, northern Minnesota, ca. 1933. Photographed by the St. Paul Dispatch.

Black and white photograph of African American CCC Company 1728, Camp Temperance F-19, Tofte, 1934.

African American CCC Company 1728

African American CCC Company 1728, Camp Temperance F-19, Tofte, 1934.

Civilian Conservation Corps in Minnesota, 1933–1942

The U.S. Congress paved the way for the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) when it passed the Emergency Conservation Work (ECW) Act in March 1933, at the height of the Great Depression. This New Deal program offered meaningful work to young men with few employment prospects. It resulted in a lasting legacy of forestry, soil, and water conservation, as well as enhancements to Minnesota's state and national parks.

Color image of a bust of Frank Boyd in St. Paul’s Frank Boyd Park, 2016.

Bust of Frank Boyd in St. Paul’s Frank Boyd Park

Bust of Frank Boyd in St. Paul’s Frank Boyd Park, 2016. Photographed by Paul Nelson.

Black and white photograph of A. Philip Randolph, 1920. Courtesy New York Public Library.

A. Philip Randolph

A. Philip Randolph, 1920. Courtesy New York Public Library.

Black and white photograph of Pullman porter Dewey Jackson, c.1955.

Pullman porter Dewey Jackson

Pullman porter Dewey Jackson, c.1955.

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