Crispus Attucks Home, St. Paul

In 1910 there were over sixty orphanages and homes for the aged operated by and for African Americans in the United States. Minnesota had one of them: St. Paul's Crispus Attucks Home. The home was named for the African American patriot killed in the Boston Massacre of 1770. It served the community for six decades, beginning in 1906 during the Jim Crow era and ending in 1966 at the peak of the civil rights movement.

MN90: Minnesota's Civil Rights Visionary

While Martin Luther King Jr. may be the name most people think of when they think of civil rights, there’s another seminal character in the story of equality in the U.S. MN90 Producer Andi McDaniel learns about Roy Wilkins, who grew up in St. Paul and attended the University of Minnesota.

MN90: Minnesota's Most Able Attorney

To say that Frederick McGhee had a remarkable life would be an understatement. Born into slavery, he became the first African American attorney to practice in MN. He was among the founders of the NAACP. He argued against separate but equal laws in 1910, nearly forty years before Plessy vs. Ferguson. MN90 producer Allison Herrera tells us about his legacy.

MN90: Minnesota's African-American Press

Minnesota has one of the more robust black newspaper scenes in the country. At one time, there were nearly one hundred. The oldest such newspaper is The Minnesota Spokesman Recorder, based in Minneapolis. As Allison Herrera points out, these newspapers not only informed African-Americans about news and culture of the day, they did it with literary flair.

MN90: George Bonga: Minnesota's First Fur Trader

Half black, half Ojibwe, George Bonga was the first person of African descent born in what was then the territory of Minnesota in 1802. He was a fur trader and a treaty translator that forged vital relationships with both Europeans and Native Americans. Allison Herrera tells us more about his important role in Minnesota history.

Marvel Cooke

Marvel Cooke.

Black and white portrait of Judge Charles E. Vanderburgh.

Judge Charles E. Vanderburgh

Judge Charles E. Vanderburgh c.1872. Vanderburgh presided over the Eliza Winston court case in August 1860.

Black and white photograph of entrance to Winslow House, St. Anthony. 1860 photo by William H. Jacoby.

Entrance to Winslow House, St. Anthony.

Entrance to Winslow House, St. Anthony. 1860 photo by William H. Jacoby.

Black and white photograph of Winslow Hotel and Seven Corners, 1861.

Winslow Hotel and Seven Corners, 1861.

Winslow Hotel and Seven Corners, 1861.

Black and white photograph of Winslow House, St. Anthony, 1860.

Winslow House, St. Anthony.

Winslow House, St. Anthony, 1860.

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