Civil Unrest on Plymouth Avenue, Minneapolis, 1967

On the night of July 19, 1967, racial tension in North Minneapolis erupted along Plymouth Avenue in a series of acts of arson, assaults, and vandalism. The violence, which lasted for three nights, is often linked with other race-related demonstrations in cities across the nation during 1967’s “long hot summer.”

Black and white photograph of St. Mark’s African Methodist Episcopal Church, Duluth. Photographed in 1975.

St. Mark’s African Methodist Episcopal Church, Duluth (exterior)

St. Mark’s African Methodist Episcopal Church, Duluth. Photographed in 1975.

Black and white photograph of St. Mark’s African Methodist Episcopal Church interior, Duluth. Photographed in 1975.

St. Mark’s African Methodist Episcopal Church, Duluth (interior)

St. Mark’s African Methodist Episcopal Church interior, Duluth. Photographed in 1975.

Black and white photograph of Rev. Alphonse Reff standing in the pulpit at St. Mark’s African Methodist Episcopal Church, Duluth, July 8, 1975.

Rev. Alphonse Reff at the pulpit of St. Mark’s AME

Rev. Alphonse Reff standing in the pulpit at St. Mark’s African Methodist Episcopal Church, Duluth, July 8, 1975.

Black and white photograph of Rev. William M. Majors, c.1920. Majors was pastor of St. Mark’s AME at the time of the 1920 Duluth lynchings.

Rev. William M. Majors

Rev. William M. Majors, c.1920. Majors was pastor of St. Mark’s AME at the time of the 1920 Duluth lynchings.

Color image of St. Mark’s African Methodist Episcopal Church, Duluth, 2001.

St. Mark’s African Methodist Episcopal Church, Duluth

St. Mark’s African Methodist Episcopal Church, Duluth, 2001.

St. Mark’s AME Church

St. Mark’s African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church has played a central role in Duluth’s African American community for over 125 years. While other black organizations have dissolved or moved to the Twin Cities, St. Mark’s has been a mainstay.

Black and white photograph of Toni Stone meeting her idol, boxer Joe Louis, c.1949.

Toni Stone and Joe Louis

Toni Stone meeting her idol, boxer Joe Louis, c.1949.

Stone, Marcenia Lyle "Toni", 1921–1996

Marcenia Lyle (Toni "Tomboy") Stone broke both gender and racial barriers by becoming the first female professional baseball player in the Negro Major League. During her career, she played with a variety of men's teams before making history when she joined the Indianapolis Clowns, a Negro Major League Team.

Black and white photograph of Nellie Stone Johnson, c.1935.

Nellie Stone Johnson

Nellie Stone Johnson, c.1935.

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