Stephen Bonga

Stephen Bonga

Stephen Bonga, George's brother, c. 1880.

George Bonga

George Bonga

George Bonga, c. 1870.

Bonga, George (c.1802–1874)

Fur trader and translator, George Bonga was one of the first black men born in what later became Minnesota. His mother was Ojibwe, as were both of his wives. Through these relationships, Bonga was part of the mixed racial and cultural groups that connected trading companies and American Indians. He frequently guided white immigrants and traders through the region. Comfortable in many worlds, Bonga often worked as an advocate for the Ojibwe in their dealings with trading companies and the government.

Cooke, Marvel Jackson (1901–2000)

Marvel Cooke was a pioneering African American female journalist and political activist. Cooke's groundbreaking career was spent in a world where she was often the only female African American. Talking about her work for the white-owned newspaper the Compass, she told biographer Kay Mills in 1988, ''there were no black workers there and no women."

Frederick McGhee house, 665 University Avenue, St. Paul

Frederick McGhee house, 665 University Avenue, St. Paul

Fredrick McGhee house, 665 University Avenue, St. Paul, c.1918.

Frederick (or Fredrick) L. McGhee

Frederick (or Fredrick) L. McGhee

Fredrick McGhee, c.1910.

Mattie McGhee (Mrs. Frederick McGhee)

Mattie McGhee (Mrs. Frederick McGhee)

Mattie McGhee, wife of Fredrick McGhee, c.1900. Photograph by Harry Shepherd.

Frederick (or Fredrick) L. McGhee

Frederick (or Fredrick) L. McGhee

Cabinet photograph of Fredrick McGhee, c.1890. Photograph by Harry Shepherd.

McGhee, Fredrick (1861–1912)

In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Fredrick McGhee was known as one of Minnesota's most prominent trial lawyers. In 1905 he was one of a group of thirty-two men, led by W.E.B. DuBois, who founded the Niagara Movement, which called for full civil liberties and an end to racial discrimination.

Casiville Bullard House, Side View

Casiville Bullard House, Side View

Casiville Bullard House, Side View, 1282 Folsom Street, St. Paul

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