Black and white photograph of milk is dumped ankle deep from a 1,500-gallon bulk NFO truck on the Martin Lampi farm field near Annandale, March 7, 1963.

NFO milk-dumping action in Annandale

Milk is dumped ankle deep from a 1,500-gallon bulk NFO truck on the Martin Lampi farm field near Annandale, March 7, 1963.

Black and white photograph of a crowd of more than a thousand people gathered on March 7, 1963, in front of the Albion French Lake Creamery.

NFO meeting

A crowd of more than a thousand people gathered on March 7, 1963, in front of the Albion French Lake Creamery, five miles southwest of Annandale, to listen to National NFO president Oren Lee Staley express gratitude to supporters and warn of a fight against those who did not support the NFO.

Black and white photograph of owners of a family farm in Maple Plain pose with their animals, October 10, 1955.

Maple Plain farm family

Owners of a family farm in Maple Plain pose with their animals, October 10, 1955.

NFO Holding Actions in Minnesota

Minnesota farmers were active in building the National Farmers Organization (NFO), a populist farm group dedicated to strengthening family farmers’ economic well-being. Unlike other farm groups on both the right (the Farm Bureau) and the left (the Farmers’ Union), the NFO during the 1960s focused on direct economic action.

Color image of the second floor landing of the James J. Hill House, 2008

Second floor landing of the James J. Hill House

Second floor landing of the James J. Hill House, 2008

Color image of a wooden ballot box with hinged lid containing forty-two marbles and twelve black plastic cubes. Used by the Minnesota Grange.

Minnesota Grange ballot box

Wooden ballot box with hinged lid containing forty-two marbles and twelve black plastic cubes. Used by the Minnesota Grange.

Black and white photograph of Governor Elmer Benson signing a bill with Grange Master William B. Pearson looking on, 1963. Photographed by Eugene Debs Becker.

Governor Elmer Benson signing a bill with Grange Master William B. Pearson looking on

Governor Elmer Benson signing a bill with Grange Master William B. Pearson looking on, 1963. Photographed by Eugene Debs Becker.

Black and white photograph of Grange Hall (Minnehaha Grange Number 398) in Edina, 1948.

Minnehaha Grange hall

Grange Hall (Minnehaha Grange Number 398) in Edina, 1948.

Black and white photograph of a State Grange booth at the Minnesota State Fair, c.1948.

State Grange booth at Minnesota State Fair

State Grange booth at the Minnesota State Fair, c.1948.

Black and white photograph of a Grange Hall, in Bloomington, c.1890.

Grange Hall, Bloomington

Grange Hall, Bloomington, c.1890.

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