Indian Mounds Park, St. Paul

The six burial mounds at St. Paul’s Indian Mounds Park are among the oldest human-made structures in Minnesota. Along with mounds in Crow Wing, Itasca, and Beltrami Counties, they are some of the northernmost burial mounds on the Mississippi River. They comprise the only ancient American Indian burial mounds still extant inside a major U.S. city.

Black and white photograph of Indian Civilian Conservation Corps crew on the stockade site at the end of the first day of work, Grand Portage, Minnesota, 1937. Photographed by Willoughby Maynard Babcock, Jr.

Indian Civilian Conservation Corps crew

Indian Civilian Conservation Corps crew on the stockade site at the end of the first day of work, Grand Portage, Minnesota, 1937. Photographed by Willoughby Maynard Babcock, Jr.

Civilian Conservation Corps in Minnesota, 1933–1942

The U.S. Congress paved the way for the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) when it passed the Emergency Conservation Work (ECW) Act in March 1933, at the height of the Great Depression. This New Deal program offered meaningful work to young men with few employment prospects. It resulted in a lasting legacy of forestry, soil, and water conservation, as well as enhancements to Minnesota's state and national parks.

Black and white photograph of students and a teacher at an Indian boarding school, c.1900.

American Indian boarding school teacher and students

Students and a teacher at an American Indian boarding school, c.1900.

Black and white photograph of “Intermediate” students inside a classroom at an Indian boarding school in Beaulieu, c.1900.

American Indian boarding school in Beaulieu, Minnesota

“Intermediate” students inside a classroom at an American Indian boarding school in Beaulieu, Minnesota, c.1900.

Black and white photograph of students at an Indian board school, c.1900.

American Indian boarding school students

Students at an American Indian board school, c.1900.

Black and white photograph of students inside a classroom at an Indian boarding school, c.1900.

American Indian boarding school classroom

Students inside a classroom at an American Indian boarding school, c.1900.

Black and white photograph of students at an Indian boarding school perform a Thanksgiving play, c.1900.

Thanksgiving play at an American Indian boarding school

Students at an American Indian boarding school perform a Thanksgiving play, c.1900.

Black and white photograph of a young child inside an Indian boarding school, c.1890s.

Interior of an American Indian boarding school

A young child inside an American Indian boarding school, c.1890s.

Black and white photograph of students and staff of an Indian boarding school, c.1900.

Students and staff of an American Indian boarding school

Students and staff of an American Indian boarding school, c.1900.

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