U.S. Model 1841 Percussion Rifle. This rifle was struck by a bullet and disabled during the Battle of Birch Coulee.

US Model 1841 "Mississippi" rifle

U.S. Model 1841 Percussion Rifle. This rifle was struck by a bullet and disabled during the Battle of Birch Coulee.

Lithograph interpretation of the Battle of Birch Coulee, 1912.

The Battle of Birch Coulee

Lithograph interpretation of the Battle of Birch Coulee, 1912.

The Battle of Birch Coulee, September 2–3, 1862

The Battle of Birch Coulee, fought between September 2 and 3, 1862, was the worst defeat the United States suffered and the Dakotas' most successful engagement during the U.S.-Dakota War of 1862. Over thirty hours, approximately two hundred Dakota soldiers pinned down a Union force of 150 newly recruited U.S. volunteers, militia, and civilians from the area, holding them until Henry Sibley's main army arrived.

Sandy Lake Dam near McGregor, Aitkin County.

Sandy Lake Dam near McGregor, Aitkin County.

Sandy Lake dam in the mid-20th century

Franklin Cook, Minneapolis.

Franklin Cook, Minneapolis

Franklin Cook, c.1880.

Log house, White Earth Reservation.

Log house, White Earth Reservation

A house at White Earth Reservation, c.1900.

Pine River Dam, Cass County.

Pine River Dam, Cass County

Pine river dam following renovations, 1906.

Pokegama Falls

Pokegama Falls.

Pokegama falls, 1895. Eleven years after the original dam's completion.

Winnibigoshish Dam.

Winnibigoshish Dam

Lake Winnibigoshish dam after the first round of renovations, 1904.

The Mississippi River Reservoir Dam System

The Headwaters Dams were built between 1881 and 1912 in the Mississippi headwaters. The dams served to regulate river flow and assist navigation until 1938, when they were relegated to a flood control role.

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