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Stephen Bonga

Stephen Bonga

Stephen Bonga, George's brother, c.1880.

George Bonga

George Bonga

George Bonga, c.1870.

Bonga, George (c.1802–1874)

Fur trader and translator George Bonga was one of the first black men born in what later became Minnesota. His mother was Ojibwe, as were both of his wives. Through these relationships, Bonga was part of the mixed racial and cultural groups that connected trading companies and American Indians. He frequently guided white immigrants and traders through the region. Comfortable in many worlds, Bonga often worked as an advocate for the Ojibwe in their dealings with trading companies and the government.

U.S. Model 1841 Percussion Rifle. This rifle was struck by a bullet and disabled during the Battle of Birch Coulee.

US Model 1841 "Mississippi" rifle

U.S. Model 1841 Percussion Rifle. This rifle was struck by a bullet and disabled during the Battle of Birch Coulee.

Lithograph interpretation of the Battle of Birch Coulee, 1912.

The Battle of Birch Coulee

Lithograph interpretation of the Battle of Birch Coulee, 1912.

The Battle of Birch Coulee, September 2–3, 1862

The Battle of Birch Coulee, fought between September 2 and 3, 1862, was the worst defeat the United States suffered and the Dakotas' most successful engagement during the U.S.-Dakota War of 1862. Over thirty hours, approximately two hundred Dakota soldiers pinned down a Union force of 150 newly recruited U.S. volunteers, militia, and civilians from the area, holding them until Henry Sibley's main army arrived.

Sandy Lake Dam near McGregor, Aitkin County.

Sandy Lake Dam near McGregor, Aitkin County.

Sandy Lake dam in the mid-20th century

Franklin Cook, Minneapolis.

Franklin Cook, Minneapolis

Franklin Cook, c.1880.

Log house, White Earth Reservation.

Log house, White Earth Reservation

A house at White Earth Reservation, c.1900.

Pine River Dam, Cass County.

Pine River Dam, Cass County

Pine river dam following renovations, 1906.

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