Black and white photograph of children at an Indian boarding school work in a garden plot, c.1890s.

Children at an American Indian boarding school work in a garden plot

Children at an American Indian boarding school work in a garden plot, c.1890s.

Black and white photograph of mmbers of the White Earth boarding school band photographed by the A. A. Richardson Photo-Illustrating Company between 1908 and 1916.

White Earth boarding school band

Members of the White Earth boarding school band photographed by the A. A. Richardson Photo-Illustrating Company between 1908 and 1916.

Black and white photograph of students performing a drill on the grounds of an Indian boarding school, c.1890s.

Students performing a drill on the grounds of an American Indian boarding school

Students performing a drill on the grounds of an American Indian boarding school, c.1890s.

American Indian Boarding Schools

American Indian boarding schools, which operated in Minnesota and across the United States beginning in the late nineteenth century, represent a dark chapter in U.S. history. Also called industrial schools, these institutions prepared boys for manual labor and farming and girls for domestic work. The boarding school, whether on or off a reservation, carried out the government's mission to restructure Indians' minds and personalities by severing children’s physical, cultural, and spiritual connections to their tribes.

Color image of the hand of an American Indian symbolically offering ear of corn to colonists. Used in The Grain That Built a Hemisphere.

American Indian Corn

Hand of an American Indian symbolically offering ear of corn to colonists. Used in The Grain That Built a Hemisphere, 1943.

Color image of a corn god holding an ear of corn. Photograph by Wikimedia Commons user ŠJů, 2012.

Yam Kaax, the Mayan corn god

Corn god holding an ear of corn. Photograph by Wikimedia Commons user ŠJů, 2012.

Black and white photograph of Elsa Jemne painting portrait of a Blackfoot woman, c.1915

Elsa Jemne painting portrait of a Blackfoot woman

Elsa Jemne painting portrait of a Blackfoot woman, c.1915.

Color image of Portrait of An Indian Male, oil-on-canvas painting by Elsa Jemne, 1926.

"Portrait of An Indian Woman"

Portrait of An Indian Woman, oil-on-canvas painting by Elsa Jemne, 1926.

Color image of Mrs. Star, oil-on-canvas painting by Elsa Jemne, 1926.

"Mrs. Star"

Mrs. Star, oil-on-canvas painting by Elsa Jemne, 1926.

Color image of Yellow Kidney, Keeper of the Beaver Bundle, oil-on-canvas painting by Elsa Jemne, 1926.

"Yellow Kidney, Keeper of the Beaver Bundle"

Yellow Kidney, Keeper of the Beaver Bundle, oil-on-canvas painting by Elsa Jemne, 1926.

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