Black and white photograph of “Intermediate” students inside a classroom at an Indian boarding school in Beaulieu, c.1900.

American Indian boarding school in Beaulieu, Minnesota

“Intermediate” students inside a classroom at an American Indian boarding school in Beaulieu, Minnesota, c.1900.

Black and white photograph of students at an Indian board school, c.1900.

American Indian boarding school students

Students at an American Indian board school, c.1900.

Black and white photograph of students inside a classroom at an Indian boarding school, c.1900.

American Indian boarding school classroom

Students inside a classroom at an American Indian boarding school, c.1900.

Black and white photograph of students at an Indian boarding school perform a Thanksgiving play, c.1900.

Thanksgiving play at an American Indian boarding school

Students at an American Indian boarding school perform a Thanksgiving play, c.1900.

Black and white photograph of a young child inside an Indian boarding school, c.1890s.

Interior of an American Indian boarding school

A young child inside an American Indian boarding school, c.1890s.

Black and white photograph of students and staff of an Indian boarding school, c.1900.

Students and staff of an American Indian boarding school

Students and staff of an American Indian boarding school, c.1900.

Black and white photograph of children at an Indian boarding school work in a garden plot, c.1890s.

Children at an American Indian boarding school work in a garden plot

Children at an American Indian boarding school work in a garden plot, c.1890s.

Black and white photograph of mmbers of the White Earth boarding school band photographed by the A. A. Richardson Photo-Illustrating Company between 1908 and 1916.

White Earth boarding school band

Members of the White Earth boarding school band photographed by the A. A. Richardson Photo-Illustrating Company between 1908 and 1916.

Black and white photograph of students performing a drill on the grounds of an Indian boarding school, c.1890s.

Students performing a drill on the grounds of an American Indian boarding school

Students performing a drill on the grounds of an American Indian boarding school, c.1890s.

American Indian Boarding Schools

American Indian boarding schools, which operated in Minnesota and across the United States beginning in the late nineteenth century, represent a dark chapter in U.S. history. Also called industrial schools, these institutions prepared boys for manual labor and farming and girls for domestic work. The boarding school, whether on or off a reservation, carried out the government's mission to restructure Indians' minds and personalities by severing children’s physical, cultural, and spiritual connections to their tribes.

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