American Indian boarding schools, which operated in Minnesota and across the United States beginning in the late nineteenth century, represent a dark chapter in U.S. history. Also called industrial schools, these institutions prepared boys for manual labor and farming and girls for domestic work. The boarding school, whether on or off a reservation, carried out the government's mission to restructure Indians' minds and personalities by severing children’s physical, cultural, and spiritual connections to their tribes.
The exterior of the Minneapolis location of Comunidades Latinas Unidas en Servicio (CLUES), a nonprofit social service organization for Latinos, at 720 East Lake Street in Minneapolis, February 20, 2016. Photographed by Lizzie Ehrenhalt.