Black and white photograph of faculty of the State School, c.1885.

Faculty group at Owatonna State School

Faculty of the State School, c.1885.

Color drawing of the State Public School in Owatonna, c.1906.

State public school, Owatonna

The State Public School in Owatonna, c.1906.

Minnesota State Public School for Dependent and Neglected Children

The Minnesota State Public School for Dependent and Neglected Children operated from 1886 to 1947. The campus is one of the most intact examples of a state cottage school standing in the United States, and is significant on a national level.

Charity-ball announcement featuring the proposed new facility for the Crispus Attucks home. The Appeal, November 11, 1911.

Do you wish to help build this?

Charity-ball announcement featuring the proposed new facility for the Crispus Attucks home. St. Paul Appeal, November 11, 1911.

Black and white photograph of Crispus Attucks moves to 1537 Randolph Avenue in Highland Park, 1908.

Crispus Attucks moves to 1537 Randolph Avenue in Highland Park

Crispus Attucks moves to 1537 Randolph Avenue in Highland Park, 1908.

Black and white photograph taken in of the Crispus Attucks Orphanage and Old Folks Home at 469 Collins Street in St. Paul, 1962.

Crispus Attucks Home for the Aged (formerly Home for the Friendless), 469 Collins, St. Paul

Photograph taken in of the Crispus Attucks Orphanage and Old Folks Home at 469 Collins Street in St. Paul, 1962.

Black and white photograph of the Crispus Attucks Orphanage and Old Folks Home at 1537 Randolph Avenue in St. Paul, c.1910.

Crispus Attucks Orphanage and Old Folks Home, Randolph and Brimhall Streets, St. Paul

Photograph of the Crispus Attucks Orphanage and Old Folks Home at 1537 Randolph Avenue in St. Paul, c.1910.

Black and white photograph of the Crispus Attucks Orphanage and Old Folks Home at its original location on East Acker Street in St. Paul, c.1905.

Crispus Attucks Orphanage and Old Folks Home

Photograph of the Crispus Attucks Orphanage and Old Folks Home at its original location on East Acker Street in St. Paul, c.1905.

Crispus Attucks Home, St. Paul

In 1910 there were over sixty orphanages and homes for the aged operated by and for African Americans in the United States. Minnesota had one of them: St. Paul's Crispus Attucks Home. The home was named for the African American patriot killed in the Boston Massacre of 1770. It served the community for six decades, beginning in 1906 during the Jim Crow era and ending in 1966 at the peak of the civil rights movement.

MN90: Opening the Era of Open Heart Surgery

For most of history, the human heart was off limits to medicine. The first closed heart surgery began in the 1940’s. In the 1950’s, a pair of physicians who worked in mobile surgical units of World War II discovered that open heart surgery could be an option.

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