Black and white photograph of a Finnish Lutheran congregation in front of Finnish Temperance Hall, Mt. Iron, 1896.

Finnish Temperance Hall, Mt. Iron

Finnish Lutheran congregation in front of Finnish Temperance Hall, Mt. Iron, 1896.

Black and white photograph of a Slovenian wedding in Eveleth, 1908

Slovenian wedding in Eveleth

Slovene wedding, Eveleth, 1908.

Immigration to the Iron Range, 1880–1930

During the early twentieth century, the population of the Iron Range was among the most ethnically diverse in Minnesota. Tens of thousands of immigrants arrived from Finland, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Sweden, Norway, Canada, England, and over thirty other places of origin. These immigrants mined the ore that made the Iron Range famous and built its communities.

Founding of Clontarf

Clontarf, a railroad town in Swift County, was established by Bishop John Ireland of St. Paul in 1877 as a Catholic colony on the prairie. Early arrivals named Clontarf for the site of the eleventh-century victory of the Irish king Brian Boru over Viking invaders.

Jewish Social Welfare Groups, 1871–2012

Nineteenth-century Jewish immigrants brought to Minnesota long-standing religious traditions of aiding the poor and needy. Beginning in the 1870s, German-Jewish immigrants, followed by Jews from Eastern Europe, founded an array of charitable and philanthropic groups. Women were the prime movers, though men held directors’ roles.

Black and white scan of a military land warrant used by William Thiele to buy part of New Ulm at the Winona Land Office, c.1856 (the patent was issued in 1858).

Military land warrant

Military land warrant used by William Thiele to buy part of New Ulm at the Winona Land Office, c.1856 (the patent was issued in 1858).

Black and white photograph of the first real estate office in Minneapolis, c.1855.

The first real estate office in Minneapolis

The first real estate office in Minneapolis, c.1855.

Black and white photograph of the founders of New Ulm, c.1854.

The founders of New Ulm

The founders of New Ulm, c.1854.

Military Land Warrants in Minnesota, 1854–1863

State militia soldiers fought many wars against Britain, Mexico, and American Indian nations to take land for the United States. The federal government rewarded them with military land warrants—certificates that could be redeemed for up to 160 acres of U.S. public land. The warrants were quickly sold and then traded on Wall Street to land agents in the country’s western territories. The agents made huge profits from selling and loaning them to struggling farmers. In Minnesota, German immigrants used land warrants to buy Dakota land, start farms, and found the town of New Ulm.

Hmong Health Care Professionals Coalition

The Hmong Health Care Professionals Coalition (HHCPC) is a partnership of Hmong public health experts based in St. Paul. Since its founding in 1995, the HHCPC has grown to become a central health resource for Minnesota’s Hmong community. Its members and volunteers conduct research, educate patients, develop best practices, and provide leadership to other health groups.

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