Black and white photograph of a candlelight vgil at Mayor Fraser’s office, 1983.

Candlelight vigil at Mayor Fraser’s office

Women maintained a candlelight vigil outside of Mayor Donald Fraser's office while they waited for his decision on the ordinance amendment passed by the Minneapolis City Council on December 30, 1983. Known for his strong feminist convictions, the mayor vetoed the measure on January 5, 1984. He explained that the measure provided a "broad" and "vague" definition of pornography that made it impossible for a "bookseller, movie theater operator or museum director to adjust his or her conduct in order to keep from running afoul of its proscriptions." He asserted that it would never withstand judicial review. This photograph was taken at Minneapolis City Hall by Stormi Greener for the Minneapolis Star Tribune and was published on December 30, 1983. Source: Minneapolis and St Paul newspaper negatives collection, Minnesota Historical Society.

Black and white photograph of Anti-pornography activists at Chicago Avenue and Lake Street, c.1980.

Anti-pornography activists at Chicago Avenue and Lake Street

Activists from the Powderhorn and Central neighborhoods of Minneapolis continued their fight against the Alexander brothers into the early 1980s, despite a series of unfavorable legal decisions. This image shows Richard Buske, Linda Wejcman, Douglas Hicks, Nancy Benson, and Vernon Wetternach on the corner of Chicago Avenue and Lake Street on January 29, 1981. Photograph taken by Art Hager of the Minneapolis Star Tribune. Source: Minneapolis and St Paul newspaper negatives collection, Minnesota Historical Society.

Black and white photograph of anti-pornography activists on Lake Street, 1979.

Anti-pornography activists on Lake Street

Linda Wejcman, Liz Anderson, Cathy Blacer, Jacqui Thompson, and Becky Anderson on Lake Street. Photographed by Meg McKinney on July 28, 1979, for the Minneapolis Tribune. Used with the permission of Sandy Date and the Minneapolis Star Tribune.

Minneapolis Anti-pornography Ordinance

In 1977, residents of South Minneapolis mobilized to fight the expansion of adult entertainment businesses along Lake Street. In 1983, after years of unsuccessful protest, these activists sought help from nationally known feminist theorists Catharine MacKinnon and Andrea Dworkin. MacKinnon and Dworkin wrote a controversial amendment to the city's expansive civil rights ordinance that defined pornography as a violation of women's civil rights.

Black and white photograph of J. Frank Wheaton, c.1913.

Attorney J. Frank Wheaton

J. Frank Wheaton, c.1913. Image is from the Minneapolis Twin City Star, September 5, 1913.

Black and white photograph of John Frank Wheaton, c.1900.

J. Frank Wheaton

John Frank Wheaton, c.1900. Photograph uploaded by Ancestry.com user LisaRoy 123.

Black and white photograph of State Capitol Building, c.1900.

State Capitol Building

State Capitol Building, c.1900.

Black and white composite of the House of Representatives, Governor and Lieutenant Governor, 1899.

Composite of the 1899 House of Representatives, Governor and Lieutenant Governor

Composite of the House of Representatives, Governor and Lieutenant Governor, 1899. Photograph by Zimmerman, Charles A.

Black and white photograph of John Frank Wheaton, c.1899.

John Frank Wheaton

John Frank Wheaton, c.1899. Photograph by Zimmerman, Charles A.

Wheaton, John Francis (1866–1922)

John Francis (J. Frank) Wheaton, a Twin Cities lawyer and orator, became the first African American elected to serve in the Minnesota legislature in 1898. A target of racial prejudice throughout his life, Wheaton believed in the political process as a means to improve the state’s civil rights laws.

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