Black and white photograph of the Reverend Bernt J. Muus and family outside of Holden Parsonage in Kenyon, c.1875.

Reverend Bernt J. Muus and Family, Holden Parsonage

The Reverend Bernt J. Muus and family outside of Holden Parsonage in Kenyon, c.1875.

Black and white photograph of Oline Pind Muus, c.1850s.

Oline Pind Muus

Oline Pind Muus, c.1850s.

Black and white photograph of the Reverend Bernt J. Muus, c.1875.

Reverend Bernt J. Muus

The Reverend Bernt J. Muus, c.1875. Photographer: Mrs. John H. Oleson.

Muus v. Muus

Divorce in Minnesota's nineteenth century Norwegian-Lutheran community was a rarity. Legal separation between a leading pastor and his wife was unheard of. But an 1879 court case in Holden Township led to both those outcomes, and triggered a public debate about married women's legal rights.

Color photograph of Rabbi Stacy Offner with a congregant of Shir Tikvah Synagogue.

Rabbi Stacy Offner with a congregant of Shir Tikvah Synagogue

Rabbi Stacy Offner with a congregant of Shir Tikvah Synagogue.

Color photograph of Rabbi Stacy Offner.

Rabbi Stacy Offner

Rabbi Stacy Offner.

Color photograph of Shir Tikvah Synagogue.

Side view of Shir Tikvah Synagogue

A side view of the exterior of Shir Tikvah Synagogue on the former site of the First Universalist Church of Minneapolis.

Color photograph of Shir Tikvah Synagogue.

Shir Tikvah Synagogue

The front façade of Shir Tikvah Synagogue on the former site of the First Universalist Church of Minneapolis.

Shir Tikvah Congregation, Minneapolis

Shir Tikvah is a Reform congregation located in south Minneapolis. It was founded in 1988 after a dispute at St. Paul's Mount Zion Temple over the homosexuality of Associate Rabbi Stacy Offner. Offner resigned from Mount Zion in February 1988. She was the first woman rabbi in Minnesota.

Shofar used at Mount Zion Hebrew Association

Shofar used at Mount Zion Hebrew Association

Shofar (ceremonial ram's horn) used at Mount Zion Hebrew Association by hazzan Lion Kalmon. Shofars are used during the Jewish holidays of Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur.

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