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Mankato State Normal School controversy, 1873

In August 1872, Julia Sears (1839–1929) was hired to head the Mankato State Normal School. Upon taking the job, she became the first woman to hold such a position of power in a coeducational institution of higher learning in the United States. Her leadership challenged traditional gender roles at teachers’ colleges but led to controversy when the local school board replaced her with a man.

Black and white photograph of St. Catherine’s alumna Betty Hubbard (right) pinning a corsage on Alice Gustava Smith (Sister Maris Stella, left) at the College of St. Catherine in 1971. Photographed by P.J. Strasser.

Alice Gustava Smith (Sister Maris Stella) and Betty Hubbard.

St. Catherine’s alumna Betty Hubbard (right) pins a corsage on Alice Gustava Smith (Sister Maris Stella, left) at the College of St. Catherine in 1971. Photographed by P.J. Strasser.

Black and white photograph of Alice Gustava Smith (Sister Maris Stella) in her office at the College of St. Catherine, c.1970.

Alice Gustava Smith (Sister Maris Stella) in her office

Alice Gustava Smith (Sister Maris Stella) in her office at the College of St. Catherine, c.1970.

Black and white photograph of composer Paul Fetler (at the piano) with Alice Gustava Smith (Sister Maris Stella), c.1969.

Paul Fetler and Alice Gustava Smith (Sister Maris Stella)

Composer Paul Fetler (at the piano) with Alice Gustava Smith (Sister Maris Stella), c.1969.

Black and white photograph of Alice Gustava Smith (Sister Maris Stella, left) with May Sarton (right), c.1958.

Alice Gustava Smith (Sister Maris Stella) and May Sarton

Alice Gustava Smith (Sister Maris Stella, left) with May Sarton (right), c.1958.

Color image of Minnesota state senator Mee Moua speaks at a rally on October 30, 2008, in support of Barack Obama, Al Franken, and other Democratic candidates.

Mee Moua

Minnesota state senator Mee Moua speaks at a rally on October 30, 2008, in support of Barack Obama, Al Franken, and other Democratic candidates.

Black and white photograph of workers from the Mount Sinai Hospital Auxiliary, the hospital’s fundraising, service and public relations organization, 1955.

Mount Sinai Hospital Auxiliary workers

Workers from the Mount Sinai Hospital Auxiliary, the hospital’s fundraising, service and public relations organization, 1955.

Black and white photograph of two members of the Mount Sinai Women's Auxiliary posing in the Mount Sinai Hospital gift shop holding a sign advertising greeting cards, c.1954.

Volunteers at Mount Sinai Gift Shop

Two members of the Mount Sinai Women's Auxiliary posing in the Mount Sinai Hospital gift shop holding a sign advertising greeting cards, c.1954. The Mount Sinai Women's Auxiliary formed a year prior to the opening of Mount Sinai Hospital in 1950. The Auxiliary operated the snack shop and gift cart and provided volunteers offering care to participants and family members.

Black and white photograph of Mount Sinai Hospital Association Auxiliary leaders (left to right) Mrs. Louis Gross, Mrs. Charles Penarsky, and Mrs. Sima Meshbesher, 1950.

Mount Sinai Hospital Association Auxiliary leaders

Mount Sinai Hospital Association Auxiliary leaders (left to right) Mrs. Louis Gross, Mrs. Charles Penarsky, and Mrs. Sima Meshbesher, 1950.

Color photograph of Jane Smith Williamson’s gravestone at the Greenwood, South Dakota Cemetery.

Jane Smith Williamson’s gravestone at the Greenwood, South Dakota Cemetery

Jane Williamson’s tombstone in the cemetery on the former Yankton Reservation in Greenwood, South Dakota bears a Daughters of the American Revolution marker identifying her as a descendant of a Revolutionary War veteran. Photograph by Lois Glewwe.

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