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Muus v. Muus

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Black and white photograph of the Reverend Bernt J. Muus, c.1875.

The Reverend Bernt J. Muus, c.1875. Photographer: Mrs. John H. Oleson.

Divorce in Minnesota's nineteenth century Norwegian-Lutheran community was a rarity. Legal separation between a leading pastor and his wife was unheard of. But an 1879 court case in Holden Township led to both those outcomes, and triggered a public debate about married women's legal rights.

In summer 1859, Lutheran minister Bernt J. Muus and his wife Oline arrived in Goodhue County's Holden Township. Muus was to serve Lutherans in Holden, located north of Kenyon in the midst of a growing Norwegian American community. Bernt and Oline had married in Norway shortly before their departure for America. Muus, born in 1832, was six years older than his bride. An honors graduate of the University of Christiania, he came from a line of leading Norwegian clergymen.

Oline Pind Muus's family was part of Norway's upper class. She received an excellent education. Oline displayed interest in her husband's work and was a devout Lutheran. Her background made her a worldly, spirited person. A contemporary noted that Oline yearned for more than a life among sturdy but uneducated farmers.

Reverend Muus, deeply religious and uncompromising in matters of faith, impressed those who met him. Nevertheless, the minister's unbending pietism and stern manner earned him critics. Followers who strayed from the path he laid out could expect severe rebukes. In ministerial matters, however, he often displayed kindness to those in need or distress.

Muus believed in education for the children of his parishioners, but preferred it to be based on his Lutheran standards. He created twenty parochial schools for immigrant children. Muus was a founder of St. Olaf College at nearby Northfield and became its first president.

While Muus dealt with challenges presented by American culture, his marriage to Oline floundered. Life in remote Holden was difficult compared to Oline's comfortable youth. Her husband had little time for her and their children. During winter, Bernt allowed only a single room and the kitchen to be heated.

When Oline broke her leg in 1877 while pregnant with their sixth child, Bernt advised her to let "patience be your liniment." On the November 1878 day her husband dedicated St. Olaf's Old Main building, their ailing twelve-year-old son died of typhus.

As Oline's spiritual leader, Bernt denied her communion for what she considered trivial matters. He also stopped her from going back to Norway to visit her family, saying that wives with such demands should be sent to St. Peter (an asylum for the insane). Prior to Oline's request to travel, Bernt had visited Norway alone.

In early winter 1879, Oline brought suit against Bernt. To better support their children, she wanted access to an inheritance left by her father. Bernt had taken the funds, believing they were his to control. In a time when a married woman's legal rights were still precarious, a wife's lawsuit against her clergyman husband stirred public interest.

The court ruled that the statute of limitations had run out on the first of Oline's two estate payments. Bernt could keep the initial sum but would have to repay her the second portion, around $1,118. The Minnesota Supreme Court later upheld the original ruling.

Back in Holden, Oline faced the censure of church members. She claimed that her treatment amounted to "torture-a-plenty." A formal March 1881 meeting was held to determine if Oline should be ousted from the church for disobeying her husband. She argued that a wife did not owe blind obedience to her husband. She stated that if God had created women to be slaves, he would not have given them intellect and spiritual ability.

Bernt also faced questioning from the membership. An estimated one thousand people attended a February 1880 meeting held mainly to consider dismissing him. During an 1882 gathering, the congregation voted seventy-three to thirty-seven to retain him.

Oline Muus left the Holden congregation and moved to Minneapolis. Courts granted her a limited divorce in 1883. She received $150 per year for ten years as alimony. Bernt was given custody of the children who were still minors. In 1896, Oline moved to Fruithurst, Alabama, where she owned and operated a hotel. She died there on September 4, 1922.

Pastor Muus suffered a stroke in the early 1890s that left him partially paralyzed. A neighbor described him as a sad, lonesome man. Muus decided to return to Norway, where he died on May 25, 1900.

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Appel, Livia and Theodore C. Blegen. "Official Encouragement of Immigration to Minnesota during the Territorial Period." Minnesota History 5, no. 3 (August 1923): 167–203.

Ayers, Edel Ytterboe. "The Old Main." Manuscript in St. Olaf College Archives, Northfield, Minnesota.

Benson, William C. High on Manitou: A History of St. Olaf College, 1874–1949. Northfield: St. Olaf College Press, 1949.

"Biographical Sketch." Unpublished manuscript. Bernt J. Muus Papers,
Norwegian-American Association Archives, Northfield, Minnesota.

Blegen, Theodore C. Norwegian Migration to America: The American Transition. Northfield, MN: Norwegian-American Association, 1940.

Ericson, Kathryn. "Triple Jeopardy: The Muus vs. Muus Case in Three Forums." Minnesota History 50, no. 8 (Winter 1987): 298–308.

Grose, Ingebrikt F. Fifty Memorable Years at St. Olaf, Marking the History of the "College on the Hill" from its Founding in 1874 to its Golden Jubilee Celebration in 1925. Northfield, MN: Northfield News, 1925.

Holden Through One Hundred Years, 1856–1956. [Holden, MN: Holden Lutheran Church, 1956].

Jarchow, Merrill E. Private Liberal Arts Colleges in Minnesota: Their History and Contributions. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1973.

Jorgenson, Theodore. "Men and Attitudes in the Early History of St. Olaf College." Banner (Northfield, MN) 7 (June 1943): 11.

Nydahl, Theodore L. "The Early Norwegian Settlement of Goodhue County, Minnesota." M.A. thesis, University of Minnesota, 1929.

"Oline Muus to Holden congregation, February 1880."Budstikken (Minneapolis), March 23, 1880.

Qualey, Carlton C. "The Norwegians." In They Chose Minnesota: A Survey of the State's Ethnic Groups, edited by June Drenning Holmquist, 220–247. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1981.

Richardson, Charles O. "Landmark Cases in Goodhue County." Goodhue County Historical News 15 (February 1981): 4.

Ronning, Halvor N. The Gospel at Work. Minneapolis: self-published, 1943.

Shaw, Joseph M. Bernt Julius Muus: Founder of St. Olaf College. Northfield, MN: Norwegian-American Historical Association, 1999.

Ueland, Andreas. Recollections of an Immigrant. New York: Minton, Balch & Company, 1929.

Related Images

Black and white photograph of the Reverend Bernt J. Muus, c.1875.
Black and white photograph of the Reverend Bernt J. Muus, c.1875.
Black and white photograph of Oline Pind Muus, c.1850s.
Black and white photograph of Oline Pind Muus, c.1850s.
Black and white photograph of the Reverend Bernt J. Muus and family outside of Holden Parsonage in Kenyon, c.1875.
Black and white photograph of the Reverend Bernt J. Muus and family outside of Holden Parsonage in Kenyon, c.1875.
Black and white photograph of Holden Church, Kenyon, August 5, 1891.
Black and white photograph of Holden Church, Kenyon, August 5, 1891.
Black and white photograph of Reverend Bernt J. Muus, c.1880.
Black and white photograph of Reverend Bernt J. Muus, c.1880.

Turning Point

In December 1879, Oline Muus is frustrated by the decision of her husband, the prominent Lutheran pastor Bernt Muus, to claim her inheritance. She decides to sue him.



Bernt Julius Muus is born in Snassen, Norway.


Oline Christine Katherine Pind is born in Norway.


Soon after his graduation from college, Muus marries Pind in Norway. The couple moves to Holden Township in Minnesota's Goodhue County.


Muus establishes a number of Norwegian Lutheran churches and travels to seven other counties to preach to more Lutherans.


On January 7, Muus opens an academy for higher education in the basement of his Holden parsonage-a first step in organizing a Norwegian-Lutheran College.


During May and June, Muus and the Goodhue County School Board superintendent argue in Red Wing newspapers about the comparative strengths of public and private schools.


St. Olaf School, later St. Olaf College, is incorporated at Northfield, some fifteen miles from its roots in the Pastor Muus parsonage.


Pressures on the marriage of Bernt and Oline Muus grow. Oline sues him in December when he claims the right to keep money she inherited from her father.


The Muus v. Muus suit tests the rights of women to keep their inheritances. Oline Muus wins in District Court.


The Minnesota Supreme Court affirms the lower court's Muus v. Muus ruling.


Oline files for separation from Bernt in Hennepin County court and asks for a divorce. A limited divorce is granted one year later.


Oline moves to Fruithurst, Alabama. She dies there in September 1922.


With his health failing, Bernt decides to return to Norway. He dies in May 1900.


Oline Muus dies in Fruithurst, Alabama in September.