Rocks with pictographs at Nett Lake, ca. 1934. Photograph by Monroe P. Killy.

Rocks with pictographs at Nett Lake

Rocks with pictographs at Nett Lake, ca. 1934. Photograph by Monroe P. Killy.

Nett Lake Reservation of Ojibwe, ca. 1920.

Nett Lake Reservation of Ojibwe

Nett Lake Reservation of Ojibwe, ca. 1920.

Ojibwe children at their home near the head of Pelican Lake (outside the Nett Lake Reservation), 1918.

Ojibwe children at Pelican Lake

Ojibwe children at their home near the head of Pelican Lake (outside the Nett Lake Reservation), 1918.

Wigwam on Nett Lake Reservation of Ojibwe, 1918.

Wigwam on Nett Lake Reservation of Ojibwe

Wigwam on Nett Lake Reservation of Ojibwe, 1918.

Destruction of Bois Forte Ojibwe Homeland, 1891–1929

From 1890 to 1910, timber speculators and lumbermen patented most of the valuable pine lands in north-central Minnesota—the homeland of the Bois Forte Ojibwe. By the 1920s, dams and deforestation had so damaged the landscape that it could no longer support the tribe’s subsistence economy, and its members were forced onto their reservation at Nett Lake.

A souvenir totem pole, created ca. 1970, with a depiction of the Hamm’s bear. This piece is a good example of Hamm’s Brewing Company’s use of generic and often inaccurate Indigenous iconography in their advertising. Although this object was made by an Ojibwe family, totem-pole carving is not an Anishinaabe tradition; the art form is practiced by Indigenous groups on the West Coast of the United States and Canada, including the Haida, the Tlingit, and the Nuxalk.

Hamm’s Beer miniature totem pole

A souvenir totem pole, created ca. 1970, with a depiction of the Hamm’s bear. This piece is a good example of Hamm’s Brewing Company’s use of generic and often inaccurate Indigenous iconography in its advertising. Although this object was made by an Ojibwe family, totem-pole carving is not an Anishinaabe tradition; the art form is practiced by Indigenous groups on the West Coast of the United States and Canada, including the Haida, the Tlingit, and the Nuxalk.

Dakota imprisoned at Fort Snelling

For six days beginning November 7, 1862, about 1,700 Dakota people—mostly women and children—who had surrendered but had not been sentenced to death or prison, were removed from the Lower Sioux Agency to a concentration camp along the river below Fort Snelling. Posted to YouTube by the Minnesota Historical Society, May 6, 2013.

Dakota elder Vernell Wabasha talks about the Jeffers Petroglyphs site

Dakota elder Vernell Wabasha talks about the Jeffers Petroglyphs site. Posted to YouTube by the Minnesota Historical Society on April 23, 2009.

American Indian Movement (AIM) button

American Indian Movement (AIM) button

American Indian Movement (AIM) button recognizing the eighty-three years between the massacre of Lakota people by the US government at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, and the occupation of the same site by AIM members in 1973.

Gun salute during the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Wounded Knee occupation

American Indian Movement (AIM) members honor those who died in the Wounded Knee occupation with a gun salute. Photograph by Jon Lurie, 1998. Used with the permission of Jon Lurie.

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