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How Environment Has Shaped the State

From Sustenance to Leisure on Minnesota Land

Expert Essay: Associate professor of history Michael J. Lansing, published in Environmental History as well as Ethics, Place, and Environment, highlights the many ways people have made use of Minnesota's flora and fauna over time and reviews the state's more recent efforts at conservation.

Black and white photograph of the Minnesota Home Guard digging graves after the fires, 1918. Minnesota Governor J.A.A. Burnquist looks on (hatless, at center back).

Minnesota Home Guard digging graves with Governor Burnquist

Minnesota Home Guard digging graves after the fires, 1918. Minnesota Governor J.A.A. Burnquist looks on (hatless, at center back).

Black and white photograph of Minnesota Home Guard camp providing assistance after the fires, 1918.

Minnesota Home Guard camp providing assistance

Minnesota Home Guard camp providing assistance after the fires, 1918.

Black and white photograph of refugees and relief workers after the Moss Lake fire, 1918.

Refugees and relief workers after the Moss Lake fire

Refugees and relief workers after the Moss Lake fire, 1918.

Black and white photograph of people and ruins after the fire, 1918.

People and ruins after the fire

People and ruins after the fire, 1918.

Black and white photograph of a view of Cloquet after fire, 1918.

View of Cloquet after fire

View of Cloquet after fire, 1918.

Black and white photograph of the National Guard giving out clothing to refugees, 1918.

National Guard giving out clothing

National Guard giving out clothing to refugees, 1918.

Black and white photograph of wrecked cars along Pike Lake Road near Duluth, 1918.

Wrecked cars along Pike Lake Road near Duluth

Wrecked cars along Pike Lake Road near Duluth, 1918.

Black and white photograph of the ruins of a car after fire, Kettle River Road, 1918.

Ruins of car after fire

Ruins of car after fire, Kettle River Road, 1918.

Black and white photograph of mass grave at Moose Lake after the fire, 1918.

Mass grave at Moose Lake

Mass grave at Moose Lake after the fire, 1918.

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