Socialist Workers Party members, ca. 1941. Back row left to right: Farrell Dobbs, Harry DeBoer, Edward Palmquist, Clarence Hamel, Emil Hansen, Oscar Coover, Jake Cooper; front row left to right: Max Geldman, Felix Marrow, Albert Goldman, James Cannon, Vincent Dunne, Carl Skoglund, Grace Carlson.
In 1941, Minneapolis leftists from the Socialist Workers Party and Teamsters union local 544 were accused of conspiracy to overthrow the government under the Alien Registration Act. Twenty-eight were indicted; eighteen were convicted and sentenced to prison.