Black and white photograph of Albert Goldman, one of the defendants in the Smith Act Trial and the leader of the group’s legal defense, ca. 1942.

Albert Goldman

Albert Goldman, one of the defendants in the Smith Act Trial and the leader of the group’s legal defense, ca. 1942.

Black and white photograph of Socialist Workers Party members, ca. 1941. Left to right: James Cannon, Felix Marrow, and Albert Goldman.

Socialist Workers Party Members

Socialist Workers Party members, ca. 1941. Left to right: James Cannon, Felix Marrow, and Albert Goldman.

Black and white photograph of Grant Dunne, Minneapolis labor leader, ca. 1930s.

Grant Dunne

Grant Dunne, Minneapolis labor leader, ca. 1930s.

Black and white photograph of a Socialist Workers Party meeting, ca. 1940. Vincent R. Dunne and Grace Carlson in center.

Socialist Workers Party Meeting

A Socialist Workers Party meeting, ca. 1940. Vincent R. Dunne and Grace Carlson in center.

Black and white photograph of Jake Cooper, Oscar Coover, Harry DeBoer, and Max Geldman at the Minneapolis Headquarters during the time of their trial, 1941.

Socialist Workers Party members during the Smith Trial

Jake Cooper, Oscar Coover, Harry DeBoer, and Max Geldman at the Minneapolis Headquarters during the time of their trial, 1941.

Black and white photograph of Harry de Boer and James H. Bartlett with Leon Trotsky, 1940.

Harry de Boer (far left) and James H. Bartlett (far right), defendants in the Smith Act Trial, with their wives and Leon Trotsky (center) in Mexico

Harry de Boer (far left) and James H. Bartlett (far right), defendants in the Smith Act Trial, with their wives and Leon Trotsky (center) in Mexico, 1940.

Black and white photograph of Socialist Workers Party members, ca.1941.

Socialist Workers Party members

Socialist Workers Party members, ca. 1941. Back row left to right: Farrell Dobbs, Harry DeBoer, Edward Palmquist, Clarence Hamel, Emil Hansen, Oscar Coover, Jake Cooper; front row left to right: Max Geldman, Felix Marrow, Albert Goldman, James Cannon, Vincent Dunne, Carl Skoglund, Grace Carlson.

Smith Act Trial

In 1941, Minneapolis leftists from the Socialist Workers Party and Teamsters union local 544 were accused of conspiracy to overthrow the government under the Alien Registration Act. Twenty-eight were indicted; eighteen were convicted and sentenced to prison.

Black and white photograph of St. Paul and Pacific Railroad employees, 1873. Photographed by Redington & Shaffer.

St. Paul and Pacific Railroad employees

St. Paul and Pacific Railroad employees, 1873. Photographed by Redington & Shaffer.

Black and white photograph of construction workers in front of the conservatory, ca. 1915.

Construction workers in front of the conservatory

Construction workers in front of the conservatory, ca. 1915.

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