Irene Paull as a child with her siblings

Irene Paull as a child with her siblings

Irene Levine Paull (right) as a child with her siblings Sam and Etta, c.1915.

Paull, Irene Levine (1908–1981)

Writer and activist Irene Levine Paull was born in Duluth to Jewish parents. Faced with discrimination because of her ethnicity, gender, and political views, Paull fought for the rights of people who were oppressed.

Fred LeQuier, President of the International Workers Association.

Fred LeQuier, President of the International Workers Association.

Fred LeQuier, President of the International Workers Association and organizer of the Timber Workers Union c.1930. LeQuier (also spelled Lequier) was the first president of the Timber Workers Union, when it was affiliated with the American Federation of Labor.

Timber workers during strike?

Timber workers during strike?

Timber workers, potentially during strike 1930–1939.

Timber workers during strike?

Timber workers during strike?

Timber workers, potentially during strike 1930–1939.

 Ilmar Koivunen (right) with Ernest Tomberg.

Ilmar Koivunen (right) with Ernest Tomberg.

Ilmar Koivunen (right) with Ernest Tomberg, 1938. Koivunen became president of the Timber Workers Union in 1937.

Striking lumberjacks standing near strike headquarters, Marenisco, Michigan.

Striking lumberjacks standing near strike headquarters, Marenisco, Michigan.

Striking lumberjacks standing near strike headquarters, Marenisco, Michigan, 1937. The Minnesota Timber Workers Union sent its organizers to coordinate the Michigan strike.

Michigan strikers reading bulletin board at strike headquarters, Marenisco, Michigan.

Michigan strikers reading bulletin board at strike headquarters, Marenisco, Michigan.

Michigan strikers reading bulletin board at strike headquarters, Marenisco, Michigan, 1937. The Minnesota Timber Workers Union sent its organizers to coordinate the Michigan strike.

Timber Worker Strikes, 1937

Spurred by a national labor movement and eight years of economic depression, Minnesota timber workers led several strikes in 1937. Their peaceful strikes were successful, winning union recognition, higher wages, and better living conditions.

Socialist Opera House, Virginia

Virginia's Socialist Opera House was one of many halls built in communities across the nation where concentrations of Finnish immigrants had settled. Used for dances, gymnastic performances, and stage plays, the halls also provided meeting places for like-minded Finns, many of them laborers who embraced socialist ideals.

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